Mapping[L, H] trait defines a bi-directional mapping between values of type
L and values of type
Low-level values of type
L can be decoded to a higher-level value of type
H. The decoding can fail; this is
represented by a result of type
DecodeResult.Failure. Failures might occur due to format errors, wrong arity, exceptions,
or validation errors. Validators can be added through the
High-level values of type
H can be encoded as a low-level value of type
Mappings can be chained using one of the
Codec[L, H, CF] is a
Mapping[L, H], with additional meta-data: a schema and the format of the
low-level value (more on that below).
There are built-in codecs for most common types such as
Int etc. Codecs are usually defined as implicit
values and resolved implicitly when they are referenced. However, they can also be provided explicitly as needed.
For example, a
query[Int]("quantity") specifies an input parameter which corresponds to the
parameter and will be mapped as an
Int. There’s an implicit
Codec[List[String], Int, TextPlain] value that is
referenced by the
query method (which is defined in the
In this example, the low-level value is a
List[String], as a given query parameter can be absent, have a single or
many values. The high-level value is an
Int. The codec will verify that there’s a single query parameter with the
given name, and parse it as an int. If any of this fails, a failure will be reported.
In a server setting, if the value cannot be parsed as an int, a decoding failure is reported, and the endpoint
won’t match the request, or a
400 Bad Request response is returned (depending on configuration).
As each codec is also a
Mapping, codecs can be used to map endpoint inputs and outputs. In such cases, the
additional meta-data (schema & format) isn’t taken into account.
Optional and multiple parameters¶
Some inputs/outputs allow optional, or multiple parameters:
- path segments are always required
- query and header values can be optional or multiple (repeated query parameters/headers)
- bodies can be optional, but not multiple
In general, optional parameters are represented as
Option values, and multiple parameters as
header[Option[String]]("X-Auth-Token") describes an optional header. An input described as
query[List[String]]("color") allows multiple occurrences of the
color query parameter, with all values gathered
into a list.
A codec contains a schema, which describes the high-level type. The schema is used when generating documentation and enforcing validation rules.
Schema consists of:
- the schema type, which is one of the values defined in
SchemaType, such as
SCoproduct(for ADTs). This is the shape of the encoded value - as it is sent over the network
- meta-data: value optionality, description and low-level format name
- validation rules
For primitive types, the schema values are built-in, and defined in the
Schema companion object.
The schema is left unchanged when mapping a codec, or an input/output, as the underlying representation of the value
doesn’t change. However, schemas can be changed for individual inputs/outputs using the
When codecs are derived for complex types, e.g. for json mapping, schemas are looked up through implicit
Schema[T] values. See custom types for more details.
Codecs contain an additional type parameter, which specifies the codec format. Each format corresponds to a media type,
which describes the low-level format of the raw value (to which the codec encodes). Some built-in formats include
multipart/form-data. Custom formats can be added by creating an
implementation of the
Thanks to codecs being parametrised by codec formats, it is possible to have a
Codec[String, MyCaseClass, TextPlain] which
specifies how to serialize a case class to plain text, and a different
Codec[String, MyCaseClass, Json], which specifies
how to serialize a case class to json. Both can be implicitly available without implicit resolution conflicts.
Different codec formats can be used in different contexts. When defining a path, query or header parameter, only a codec
TextPlain media type can be used. However, for bodies, any media types is allowed. For example, the
input/output described by
jsonBody[T] requires a json codec.
Read on about custom types.