Running as a zio-http server

The tapir-zio module defines type aliases and extension methods which make it more ergonomic to work with ZIO and tapir. Moreover, tapir-zio-http-server contains an interpreter useful when exposing the endpoints using the ZIO Http server.

The *-zio modules depend on ZIO 2.x. You’ll need the following dependency for the ZServerEndpoint type alias and helper classes:

"com.softwaremill.sttp.tapir" %% "tapir-zio" % "1.10.1"

or just add the zio-http integration which already depends on tapir-zio:

"com.softwaremill.sttp.tapir" %% "tapir-zio-http-server" % "1.10.1"

Next, instead of the usual import sttp.tapir._, you should import (or extend the ZTapir trait, see MyTapir):

import sttp.tapir.ztapir._

This brings into scope all the basic input/output descriptions, which can be used to define an endpoint.


You should have only one of these imports in your source file. Otherwise, you’ll get naming conflicts. The import sttp.tapir.ztapir._ import is meant as a complete replacement of import sttp.tapir._.

Exposing endpoints

import sttp.tapir.server.ziohttp.ZioHttpInterpreter

The ZioHttpInterpreter objects contains the toHttp method, which requires a ZServerEndpoint (see below). For example:

import sttp.tapir.PublicEndpoint
import sttp.tapir.ztapir._
import sttp.tapir.server.ziohttp.ZioHttpInterpreter
import zio.http.{HttpApp, Request, Response}
import zio._

def countCharacters(s: String): ZIO[Any, Nothing, Int] =

val countCharactersEndpoint: PublicEndpoint[String, Unit, Int, Any] =[Int])
val countCharactersHttp: HttpApp[Any] =


A single ZIO-Http application can contain both tapir-managed and ZIO-Http-managed routes. However, because of the routing implementation in ZIO Http, the shape of the paths that tapir and other ZIO Http handlers serve should not overlap. The shape of the path includes exact path segments, single- and multi-wildcards. Otherwise, request handling will throw an exception. We don’t expect users to encounter this as a problem, however the implementation here diverges a bit comparing to other interpreters.

Server logic

When defining the business logic for an endpoint, the following methods are available, which replace the standard ones:

  • def zServerLogic[R](logic: I => ZIO[R, E, O]): ZServerEndpoint[R, C] for public endpoints

  • def zServerSecurityLogic[R, U](f: A => ZIO[R, E, U]): ZPartialServerEndpoint[R, A, U, I, E, O, C] for secure endpoints

The first defines complete server logic, while the second and third allow defining server logic in parts.


When using Scala 3, it’s best to provide the type of the environment explicitly to avoid type inferencing issues. E.g.: myEndpoint.zServerLogic[Any](...).


The zio-http interpreter accepts streaming bodies of type Stream[Throwable, Byte], as described by the ZioStreams capability. Both response bodies and request bodies can be streamed. Usage: streamBody(ZioStreams)(schema, format).

The capability can be added to the classpath independently of the interpreter through the "com.softwaremill.sttp.shared" %% "zio" dependency.

Web sockets

The interpreter supports web sockets, with pipes of type[Throwable, REQ] =>[Throwable, RESP]. See web sockets for more details. It also supports auto-ping, auto-pong-on-ping, ignoring-pongs and handling of fragmented frames.

Error handling

By default, any endpoints interpreted with the ZioHttpInterpreter will use tapir’s built-in failed effect handling, which uses an interceptor. Errors can be sent in a custom format by providing a custom ErrorHandler.

If you’d prefer to use zio-http’s error handling, you can disable tapir’s exception interceptor by modifying the server options:

import sttp.tapir.server.ziohttp.{ZioHttpInterpreter, ZioHttpServerOptions}



The interpreter can be configured by providing an ZioHttpServerOptions value, see server options for details.